Must, when transporting a heavy load, or so you walk up the wheel nails alone on a hill may be). For some models, the allowed 6 km/h can be achieved only in top gear, the other gears in the wheel rolls correspondingly slower. In any case, it allows for a faster (and more controlled physically) starting from standstill to "green" switches over light n Power Electronics edit The power electronics, depending on the type of motor, consist of a dc motor controller with pulse width modulation. Motor types edit pedelec hub motor with gearbox. Smart e-bike motor Almost exclusively, pedelecs use dc motors, using commutator -less and brush disc motors, which are suitable for direct drive, and brush motors with gears. The use of maintenance-free ac induction motors pedelec is the exception. A direct rotor hub motor may feature a regenerative brake, so it can be used as a brake that converts some of the kinetic energy into battery charge. In addition to charging the battery when braking this incurs less wear on the traditional brake, reducing braking noises. Force approach of the electric drive edit see generally starting points of the electric drive. When Pedelec specifically, the type of control of the drive by the pedaling (see above which may be integrated in the drive. Drive positions edit The position of the motor has a significant impact on the handling of the pedelec. The following combinations of actuator position and motor have been successful: Motor in the hub of the front wheel.
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When the motors are regularly used heavily, especially when going uphill they may heat up significantly, some have a temperature sensor in the motor winding, where if a certain temperature is reached the electronics may reduce power to the motor. Ideally the electronics disconnect the battery at a predetermined discharge voltage to prevent total discharge and to ensure sufficient supply for the operation of the lighting system. This can be done by electronics in the battery. Force control edit When running with a force sensor, the motor is automatically a certain percentage of the service provided to the driver. In many models, this proportion may be set in several stages. There are also models where the support level can be set only at the dealer to the customer. Rotary motion detection edit In the version with speed assortiment sensor (s) of the motor is automatically using a function to a set percentage of the self-applied force. Since the force required at the speed rises sharply, it can be calculated in some models without force sensor. Sliding or traction edit The slide or traction can help with Maximization of legislation to support a motor without pedaling to 6 km/h. The shift means has the advantage that you can let the bike roll alongside with motor support without pedaling or you push yourself (e.g.
With lithium-ion batteries there is no memory effect. A lithium iron phosphate battery is much longer-lived than a lithium-ion battery. Its use significantly reduces operating costs resulting from battery wear. In 2013, they are not yet available as standard in most pedelec models, but some pedelecs (e.g. Beyond Oil) have begun installing lfp batteries as standard. Motor Control edit for switching or control of the motor, there are several possibilities: measuring the force or torque on the signal of a force sensors on the pedals, the pedal crank, the chain or at the wheel measurement of treading on the signal from. The measurement can be further processed mechanically or electronically and is used to control the motor on and off or to regulate a control function based on continuously. The fed power is based on the sensor data (force sensor, crank speed, ground speed) is calculated based on the chosen level of support from the motor controller. The so-called support levels, that is, how much the motor supported in addition to the driver's performance lie in horizontal drive 5-400 percent.
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The charging time depending on the type of battery is around 2 to 9 hours. The durability of the battery is dependent on other factors. As lead-acid batteries discharge they provide less power, so that full motor power is no longer achieved. The very light, more expensive lithium ion batteries are now used by most manufacturers and kapen have a range of up to 100 kilometers with moderate pedaling and a medium capacity battery (e.g. Lithium batteries do not tolerate frost and should not be charged vlooien at frosty temperatures. For safety, the chemical composition and the quality of the electronics are crucial. Especially with short circuit and over voltage, lithium-ion batteries react very strongly. These problems in laptops have led to recalls. Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries are a notable exception. They have far safer thermal characteristics as well as being non-toxic. In evaluating pedelec batteries, it is useful to consider not only the capacity, but also criteria such as durability, memory effect, charging time, weight, safety and environmental protection.
This means the bicycle can have a motor of 250 watts continuous rated power which must be activated only by pedalling (if above 6 km/h) and must cut out over 25 km/h. The State of Victoria is the first to amend their local road rules to accommodate this new standard as of 18 September 2012. 13 Technical edit components edit pedelecs differ from an ordinary bicycle by an additional electric motor, a battery, an electronic control system for the motor as well as a sensor to detect the motion of the cranks. Most models are also equipped with a battery charge indicator and a motor power setting, either continuously or divided into support levels. Battery edit besides the motor, the battery is the main component of pedelec technology. It is usually either a nimh - ni - or a lithium-ion battery. The battery capacity is up to 24 Ah n (Ah) at 24 or 36 V (V) or up to 15 amp hours at 48 volts. The stored energy can be up to about 800 watt hour n (Wh but mostly about 400 Wh (2013). In ideal conditions, after a thousand charges nicd batteries have 85 of their original capacity and are therefore considered worn. With nimh batteries about 400 to 800 cycles are possible.
The netherlands edit The true pedelecs are not required to have any other prerequisities than a bicycle has. However, any pedelec where the power assistance is triggered by merely turning wheels rather than pedal motion (a large number of cheap versions or notoriously front hub assistance are required to have a licence plate for a scooter / small motorcycle (so called snorfiets. In case of the power assistance stopping at a speed up to 25 km/h, the riders are not required to carry motorcycle helmets, however, this speed limit shall not be exceeded even while pedaling only. Citation needed Electric bicycles, for example Specialized Turbo, without 25 km/h speed limitation for power assistance are considered a small motorcycle and besides license plate (yellow with black letters driving license and insurance, a motorcycle helmet must be worn at all time from the start. Very surprisingly, a large fleet of electric bicycles and pedelecs without required power control linked to the pedaling effort can be seen on the cycling paths without any proper registration. Additionally, many users found very simple ways how to tweak their pedelecs in order to overcome the pedaling sensor, making their pedelecs without further proper vehicle registration illegal. Asia edit hong Kong edit pedelecs, and any other kind of mechanical assist, is illegal, and first offenders are liable to fine and imprisonment up to 3 months, while repeat offenders up to 6 months. 10 Singapore edit pedelecs are allowed, when wearing a helmet, the motor output is limited to 200W and the motor cuts out by 25 km/h. 11 India edit Electric vehicles with a motor having power less than 250w, and a maximum speed 25 km/h or lower, are not required to be registered under the central Motor Vehicle rules, and may be driven freely without any license/paperwork. 12 Japan edit Electric-assisted bicycles are treated as human-powered bicycles, while bicycles capable of propulsion by electric power alone face additional registration and regulatory requirements as mopeds. Requirements include electric power generation by a motor that cannot be easily modified, along with a power assist mechanism that operates safely and smoothly. In December 2008, The assist ratio was updated as follow: Under 10 km/h; 2 1024 km/h; 2-(Running speed - 10) / 7 over 24 km/h; 0 (see moped#Individual countries/regions ) Australia edit As of, australia has an additional new electric bicycle category using the european model.
Electric bikes, trek bikesIf any of those three conditions are true, then the bike is therefore more likely to be legally classified as a moped or motorcycle rather than as a bicycle. 9 Austria (Highway code and cfg) edit According to 2 para 1 of two types of electric bikes can be distinguished: Lit. "B) a bike, which in addition to an electric drive according to 1 is equipped (electric bike (thus hybrid drive according pedelec definition lit. "D) an electrically driven vehicle, the drive corresponds to an electric bicycle as defined in 1 paragraph 2a kfg 1967" (thus a just-electric drive). Not as motor vehicles under 1 paragraph 2a kfg apply electric bicycles - whether hybrid (pedelec) or exclusively nagels powered by electricity - with a bicycle for purposes of traffic 1960 A maximum permissible power of not more than 600 watts, and a design speed not. Provided above criteria are not exceeded is, therefore, under Austrian law, such an electric bike / pedelec not as electric power rad and therefore requires neither approval nor vehicle registration. As for normal (only muscle powered) bikes, also for electric bikes, the provisions of bicycle regulation, for the control of these are the same as those for muscle StVO-powered bicycles, etc. Mandatory use of the bike path lane with bicycles. For their (commercial) In placing on the market subject to the product liability provisions. In Austria, s-pedelecs (power-assisted pedalling up to 45 km/h) are not classified as bicycles. Whether they lit at best as moped According to Article 1 paragraph. A) Directive 2002/24/EC (or as motorbike 2 Abs 1 line 14 kfg) are typable and registered as a motor vehicle can be driven, so far (October 2010 has not survived).
6 Growth has been spectacular: the year before, 310,000-340,000 pedelecs were sold in Germany and this in turn was 55 more than in 2010. 7 In fact, in Germany sales have gone up by more than 30 every year since 2008. 1 In comparison, there were around 70 million conventional bicycles in Germany in 2011 according to ziv, the german Bicycle Industry Association. 1 About 95 of all e-bikes in Germany are in fact pedelecs. Adac, the german (auto)motive club has tested a etos large number of pedelecs in 2013, where about 70 of the pedelecs failed the test with a score lower than reasonable due to unsatisfactory safety and durability. 8 Elsewhere edit Only the Chinese market for pedelecs and e-bikes is bigger than the european. According to the national Bureau of Statistics in China more than 100 million e-bikes are on the road. The annual production in Chinese factories has increased from 58,000 (1998) to 33 million in (2011). Legal status of pedelecs worldwide edit to really be useful, it is important for a pedelec to be legally classified as a bicycle in each country or jurisdiction rather than classified as a moped or motorcycle. Otherwise, if a pedelec is classified as a moped or motorbike then it may not be allowed in bike lanes or on bike paths ; the pedelec may have to be registered fine ; the rider may have to wear a motorcycle helmet ; and/or vehicle. Europe edit In the eu this means it is important to legally distinguish between pedelecs and other e-bikes (including s-pedelecs ) as these are likely to 1) have a more powerful motor than 250 w, 2) they may be able to attain a higher speed.
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1 The other additional expenses are minor: these are the electricity recharging costs and the eventual replacement of the battery, which together have been calculated to cost losse a mere.20 -.40 per 100 km. Other disadvantages are higher risk of theft due to its higher value, and the pedelec's higher weight caused by the battery, motor and sturdier frame. History edit In 1989, michael Kutter, founder of Dolphin E-bikes, designed and produced the first pedelec prototype. 2 The first market-ready models of this kind were available in 1992 from the Swiss company velocity under the name dolphin. In 1994, larger numbers were produced by yamaha under the name power Assist. In 1995, the first Flyer in the same year founded the Swiss start-up company bktech ag in small series by e-business (as an integral part of the start-up) to the market. 3 The term pedelec was coined by susanne Brüsch in her 1999 thesis Pedelecs: Vehicles of the future ( German : Pedelecs: Fahrzeuge der zukunft ). 4 Pedelec market penetration edit europe edit Throughout the whole of Europe in 2011, between 900,000 and.24 million units were sold; this is 29 more than in 2010. It has been predicted that in 2015, 3 million e-bikes will be sold in Europe, and these will mostly be pedelecs. 5 Germany edit As of 2012 there were about 600,000 pedelecs on the road in Germany.
More powerful e-bikes, such as the. S-pedelecs and power-on-demand e-bikes (those whose motors can provide assistance regardless of whether the rider is pedalling or not) are often classified as mopeds or even motorcycles with the rider thus subject to the regulations of such motor vehicles,. Having a license and a vehicle registration, baarmoeder wearing a helmet etc. Contents, advantages and disadvantages edit, pedelecs provide various advantages over conventional bicycles: Mobility : people in hilly areas can cycle using a pedelec rather than having to rely on fully motorised transport (i.e. This is particularly of use to the elderly who may no longer have the capacity for strenuous exercise that hill climbing demands. Speed : Distances can be covered more quickly, since the average speed is higher for the same amount of effort. Effort : Alternatively, the same speeds can be reached with less effort. This means that a rider on a pedelec can sweat less if at all particularly when going up hill or against the wind so bicycle commuting in work clothes is less problematic,. Eliminating the need to change and/or shower upon getting to work. Higher range : Since the rider will be less fatigued, and average speeds higher, greater distances can be covered. The main disadvantage of the pedelec is its purchasing cost, which is significantly higher than that of a similar, but conventional bicycle : the average selling price in Germany is between 1,500 and 2,000.
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